From Teen To Adult #4

Throughout the winter, and the brutal wintry mornings, Bob has continued to grow. From me physically moving the soil around which had an orange cover over the soil around the edges of the soil to straighten up Bobs stem. I was concerned about the orange around the edges but once I came across the plants inside my house, they had the same orange cover around its edge.

Quantitative Observations:

Bob has seemingly continued to mature out. The stem has increased in a green colour all the way through the stem.

Sadly! The three sprouts of leaves growing off of the stem are starting to pass. The one has fallen off and the leaf across is ready to croak. The main leaf had three almost sprouting leaves but it has also started to die. I continue to water and take care of Bob the way I always have but he seems to be getting into his old age at such a young age. The texture is the same and hasn’t changed the only change is the green.

Qualitative Observations:

Since I gathered the soil around the stem to make it stable, I have decreased its looking length and it is now

  • Length: 19.5cm
  • Width (top): 0.3cm
  • Width (Bottom): 0.8cm
From Teen to Adult
From Teen to Adult


The anatomy and physiology is the same as it was in my last growth planting – From Toddler To Teen #3.

Human Needs; Plants=Life

Plants are the foundation for all life. Plants are what produce oxygen, filter the air we breathe and they provide all living species with food and shelter. Plants protect water quality by controlling soil erosion and moderating floods and droughts. Plants drop their leaves, providing organic matter for the earthworms to eat; the earthworms churn up and aerate the soil, which improves plant growth. Not only do humans need plants, but the living organisms need the plants to grow.

Every time you eat a salad, every vegetable in that salad, is plant. Those nuts that are in your coffee cake are plants. We rely on plants for our everyday vitamins and minerals that help us grow. 


In almonds, which are plants from the ground, the minerals that are in almonds are: Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron and those are just some.

Humans also rely on plants for our human needs. The house that we live in is made out of trees. We rely on trees which are plants for Houses, Furniture, Paper, Heat, Sporting Equipment, and other daily things that we use to survive. We rely on plants to breathe, feed us, and protect us. If we didn’t have plants, humans wouldn’t survive and we wouldn’t be here till this day.


Thanks to:

Preventing Erosion

Erosion is when the surface of the earth is constantly being worn away. As part of a healthy ecosystem, plants protect water quality by controlling soil erosion and moderating floods and droughts.

In this situation for a river bank, if you were to put a native species of plants along the river bank, it would set back the water from overflowing in the river. Certain plants are excellent at soil erosion prevention.

By putting a native species of plant along a river bank will help prevents heavy rains from beating down on your land and knocking the topsoil loose which will cause a landfall into the river bank. It would prevent the soil from drying out as quickly, thereby protecting it from being blown away by strong winds. The roots of the plants along the river bank hold the soil in place, so it’s not washed away as easily and the river bank will not overflow.

When you plant a native species along the river bank, it can prevent land erosion by protecting the river in so many ways that will avoid situations on blocking the river.

Thanks to:



Two different flower plants have similarities in appearance. Long petals are dominant over short petals. The one heterozygous dominant will be represented as D. The short petals are homozygous recessive which will be represented as d. If the two were combined, what would be the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents? Show the letters for the alleles, the genotypes and phenotypes of P1 parents, the F1 offspring in a Punnet Square and the genotypes and the phenotypes of the F1 offspring.


  • D= Long Petals                                          
  • d= Short Petals                                           


  • Dd- Long petals
  • dd- short petals

P1 offspring – Dd  x  dd


















  • 50% Dd
  • 50% dd


  • 50% Long petals
  • 50% Short petals

Therefore, in the offspring there will be 50% long petals and 50% short petals.


Plant Reproduction

Reproduction: Process by which organisms replicate themselves, assuring continuation of their species by which plants generate new individuals, or offspring.

The reproduction of plants involves two different kinds of reproduction; sexual reproduction involving the production of seeds from specific cells of two plants. Asexual reproduction occurs when a ‘parent’ plant grows new plants from its roots, stems, or leaves.

In asexual reproduction, plants produce new plants identical to themselves while in sexual reproduction using seeds, the new plants are slightly different from their parents.

Since sexual reproduction involves both male and female parts. The female structures that are involved in this reproduction are the stigma, the style and the ovary. The stigma is the sticky lip form the plant that captures the pollen grain. Pollen is produced in the anthers, which are attached at the distal end of filaments. The filament and anther together constitute the stamen, the male sex organ.The filament supports the anther which is responsible for storing and producing pollen.


  • Involves male and female sex cells
  • Pollen grain attaches to the stigma reproducing


  • Involves one organism
  • Single cell divides to produce daughter cells (Fission)
  • Takes place during mitosis where the chromosomes are duplicated


Thanks to:

Animal’s Circulatory System Vs. Plant’s Vascular System

Plants Vascular System:
Plants vascular system uses the xylem and the phloem instead of the lungs and heart that is used in animals. The xylem and the phloem make up the big vascular system in plants. The Xylems are hard wall cells that have a system of tubes that that transports cells that circulates water and dissolved minerals. The Phloem is relatively soft-walled cells that transport sugar molecules from the organic nutrients.

The Companion Cells move sugars and amino acids into and out of the sieve elements into the  Sieve Tube serving to conduct photosynthesis. The patterns on the plant called Venation consist of tissue that transports water and light into the sieve tube. Plants have a Vascular Cambium which is a cylindrical layer of cambium that runs through the stem of the plant that undergoes secondary growth of the new xylem and the new phloem.


Animals Circulatory System:

An animal’s circulatory system involves the transportation of blood from the lungs to the heart and throughout the body. The oxygenated blood that comes from the lungs through the left atrium throughout the left side into the semi lunar valves through the aorta and out to the body and to the deoxygenated part of the body into the right part of the heart and into the lungs.

The animal’s circulatory system oxygen is transported from the lungs to the cells while carbon dioxide is transported from the cells to the lungs.

Thanks to:

Respiration: Plants & Animals

Respiration between plants and animals are very similar except for the fact that plants perform photosynthesis which is the different function that plants and animals perform.  Plant cells have more features in the cells causing the plants to only use photosynthesis because they have chloroplast.

Respiration is the process in which the stomata in the leaves consume oxygen and releases carbon dioxide and water.

Photosynthesis is the process of the use of energy from sunlight to produce sugar and create their food to build storage for the food.

During photosynthesis the chlorophyll in the leaves captures the light energy and uses it to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and oxygen producing oxygen which is released from the tiny openings in the leaves called stomata’s  that’s found on the underside of the leaves.

Air containing carbon dioxide enters through the stomata’s pores where it is used during photosynthesis and respiration.

 It is very important to understand that both plants and animals need oxygen for respiration. Since respiration is the burning of sugars for energy to grow and do the internal work of living. It is very important to understand that both plants and animals need oxygen for respiration. For respiration the stomata is used to consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Energy is released and water and carbon dioxide is produced from the burning of carbohydrates.


Thanks to:

From Toddler to Teen #3

From the starting of Bobs life in December, he has done most of his sprouting throughout the winter break. Concluding this, his growth hasn’t increased as much from January 4, 2010 to January 8, 2010.

Quantitative Observations:

  • Bob is still a healthy green in colour and the white in the root has gone greener.
  • The three growing leaves have increased in growth while the curve has straightened out.
  • The texture is the same as his life time from baby to toddler. The beginning of the stem is the most strongest part of Bob.

Quantitative Observations:

  • Length: 20.4cm
  • Width(top): 0.3cm
  • Width(bottom): 0.8cm

Anatomy & Physiology of Bob’s Growth:

  • The Leaves are used in the plant to absorb oxygen into the plant increasing the growth with the light. The leaves are the main source of photosynthesis to help the plant grow and be a success in growth.
  • The Stems are used to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant and to provide structure to the plant.
  • The roots are what absorbs the water in the soil and absorbs the nutrients that are produced in the soil. The roots are what anchor the plant into the soil and they help transport the water and nutrients into the stem and into the leaves.


Plant Growth #3

Plant Growth #3

In my previous posts I described the details of each separate function of the plants anatomy.

Monocots & Dicots

  • Monocots consist of seeds that are a single piece-an example of which is corn, while Dicot seeds can be split into two, like in the case of peas.
  • Embryo with single cotyledon
  • Pollen with single furrow or pore
  • Flower parts in multiples of three
  • Major leaf veins parallel
  • Stem vascular bundles scattered
  • Roots and adventitious
  • Secondary growth absence

Examples of Monocots:

  • grass
  • cattails
  • lilies
  • onions
  • orchids




  • Embryo with two cotyledons
  • Pollen with three furrows or pores
  • Flower parts in multiples of four or five
  • Major leaf reticulated
  • Stem vascular bundles in a ring
  • Roots develop from radical
  • Secondary growth often present

 Examples of Dicots:

  • bean seeds
  •  peanuts
  • geranium
  • snapdragon
  • citrus



 Evolving Into Another:

Monocots(monocotyledons) where evolved within dicots(dicotyledons). Throughout the years, the evolutions of monocots have increased in size and shape which are now known as dicots.  

According to research on the evolution on DNA between monocot and dicots, the monocots evolved from dicotyledonous stock, not from the base of the tree, and monocots originated after several groups of dicotyledons had already evolved.

(Taken directly from )

Classification: Angiosperms vs. Gymnosperms

Angiosperms: are a taxonomic class of plants in which the mature seed is surrounded by the ovule and is enclosed by the ovary.

  1. They are flowering plants that transfer pollen from one flower to another since they have vascular organisms that flowers and grows fruit.  
  2. Angiosperms have an outer-covering shell around their seeds which is enclosed in sporophylls which from one or more carpels or the ovary. They also produce seeds within the protection of an ovary which then matures into a fruit.
  3. Angiosperms have both male and female sex cells including fertilized cells that form within an ovary which then forms a fruit.
  4. Angiosperms are divided into monocotyledons (single seed leave in the embryo) and dicotyledons (two seed leaves in the embryo).


  • Trilliums
  • Raspberries
  • Clovers
  • Apple trees

  Gymnosperms: are a taxonomic class that includes plants whose seeds are not enclosed in an ovule.

  1. Gymnosperms have heterosporous which means that they produce cones and different male and female spores
  2. Gymnosperms have vascular organisms that produce seeds. Gymnosperms have vascular organisms that produce seeds.
  3. They produce cones that produce naked seeds on the scales of the cone which are not enclosed in any specialized chambers; concluding that the pollen from the male cones is carried by the wind to female cones.


  • Pines
  • Spruces
  • Firs
  • Redwoods